This book presents a perspective of network analysis as a tool to find and quantify significant structures in the interaction patterns between different types of entities. Moreover, network analysis provides the basic means to relate these structures to properties of the entities. It has proven itself to be useful for the analysis of biological and social networks, but also for networks describing complex systems in economy, psychology, geography, and various other fields. Today, network analysis packages in the open-source platform R and other open-source software projects enable scientists from all fields to quickly apply network analytic methods to their data sets. Altogether, these applications offer such a wealth of network analytic methods that it can be overwhelming for someone just entering this field. This book provides a road map through this jungle of network analytic methods, offers advice on how to pick the best method for a given network analytic project, and how to avoid common pitfalls. It introduces the methods which are most often used to analyze complex networks, e.g., different global network measures, types of random graph models, centrality indices, and networks motifs. In addition to introducing these methods, the central focus is on network analysis literacy - the competence to decide when to use which of these methods for which type of question. Furthermore, the book intends to increase the reader's competence to read original literature on network analysis by providing a glossary and intensive translation of formal notation and mathematical symbols in everyday speech. Different aspects of network analysis literacy - understanding formal definitions, programming tasks, or the analysis of structural measures and their interpretation - are deepened in various exercises with provided solutions. This text is an excellent, if not the best starting point for all scientists who want to harness the power of network analysis for their field of expertise.
This volume provides a discussion of the challenges and perspectives of electromagnetics and network theory and their microwave applications in all aspects. It collects the most interesting contribution of the symposium dedicated to Professor Peter Russer held in October 2009 in Munich.
Dean Pomerleau's trainable road tracker, ALVINN, is arguably the world's most famous neural net application. It currently holds the world's record for distance traveled by an autonomous robot without interruption: 21.2 miles along a highway, in traffic, at speedsofup to 55 miles per hour. Pomerleau's work has received worldwide attention, including articles in Business Week (March 2, 1992), Discover (July, 1992), and German and Japanese science magazines. It has been featured in two PBS series, "The Machine That Changed the World" and "By the Year 2000," and appeared in news segments on CNN, the Canadian news and entertainment program "Live It Up", and the Danish science program "Chaos". What makes ALVINN especially appealing is that it does not merely drive - it learns to drive, by watching a human driver for roughly five minutes. The training inputstothe neural networkare a video imageoftheroad ahead and thecurrentposition of the steering wheel. ALVINN has learned to drive on single lane, multi-lane, and unpaved roads. It rapidly adapts to other sensors: it learned to drive at night using laser reflectance imaging, and by using a laser rangefinder it learned to swerve to avoid obstacles and maintain a fixed distance from a row of parked cars. It has even learned to drive backwards.